溫棚養殖雙茬對蝦,掌握好這些技術,年收入可達百萬!

       

溫棚對蝦養殖是滄州沿海近年來探索的一種新的對蝦養殖模式,該養殖模式的特點是高產高效、可控性強、養殖成功率高,是我省對蝦養殖的一個新模式。本文重點介紹啟瑞水產養殖專業合作社開展的溫棚南美白對蝦養殖,包括養殖設施的建設、養殖管理技術等,以期為該技術的示范推廣提供參考。

CANGZHOUSHIWENPENGDUIXIAYANGZHISHIFANJIDIQIRUISHUICHANYANGZHIZHUANYEHEZUOSHE,CHENGLIYU2015NIAN11YUE,HEZUOSHEWEIYUHUANGHUASHINANPAIHEZHENZHANGJUHECUN,ZHANDI4.67hm2,HEZUOSHEYANGZHIWENPENGJICHUSHESHI2015NIAN12YUEKAIGONGJIANSHE,2016NIAN3YUEWANCHENGSHIGONG,4YUEKAISHIDIYICHANANMEIBAIDUIXIAYANGZHI,6YUE12RIZHI17RIDIYICHAYANGZHIDUIXIACHUCHI,PINGJUNGUIGE80WEI/kg,DANCHANDA2108.3 kg/667m2,CHUCHIJIAGE55.32YUAN/kg,SHIXIANLEKAIMENHONG。

NO.1基礎設施

ZHONGYANGPAIWUWENPENG3ZUO(YUE0.8hm2),SHUICHULICHIYUE3.0hm2(YIJICHENDIANCHI、ERJISHUICHULICHIGEYI),SHALVGUANYIZUO,180mSHENQIANJIJINGYIYAN,LUOCIFENGJIZENGYANGSHESHI4TAO(40kW),PEIDIANSHESHIYITAO(80kVA)DENGQITASHEBEI。

NO.2溫棚建設

HEZUOSHEGONGJIANYOUSANGEWENPENG,DONGXIFANGXIANGPINGXINGPAILIE,MEIGEWENPENGDONGXICHANG130m,NANBEIKUAN20m,WENPENGGAO4m,MEIGEWENPENGNEISHE4GEYANGZHICHITANG,MEIGECHITANGYOUXIAOYANGZHISHUIMIAN600m2。YANGZHICHITANGZHONGYANGSHEZHIJIWUKENG、CHIDIPUSHEPAIWUGUANDAO(MAIRUDIXIAYUE50cm),BIANYUJIANGDUIXIAFENBIAN、CANERDENGFEIWUPAICHU,CHITANGDIBUYOUSIZHOUXIANGZHONGYANGDEJIWUKENGCHENG15~20°PODU,YOULIYUFEIWUSUISHUILIUXUANZHUANXIANGZHONGYANGHUIJI。

WENPENGCAIYONGGANGGUANLIANGCHENGZHONG,WAIFUYICENGSULIAOBOMO。WENPENGZHONGJIANDONGXIXIANGSHEYIZHULIANG,MEI10mSHEYICHENGZHONGZHICHENGZHU,GANGGUANLIANGMEILIANGGEGANGGUANLIANGZHIJIANJIANGE1.5m,BAOZHENGWENPENGJIANGU,WENPENGDINGYUDIMIANDEJIAJIAOYUE35°~40°,BIMIANYINDAFENGDENGENVETIANQIZAOCHENGSUNSHI。

WENPENGDONGXILIANGDUAN、WENPENGBEICEZIDIMIANXIANGSHANG1.0~1.5 m,CAIYONGSHOUDONGJUANLIANZHUANGZHI,GAOWENJIJIEKEYIJUANQI,LIYUPENGNEITONGFENG,YIBAOCHISHIYIDEHUANJING。

NO.3水源配置設施

XUSHUICHI2GE(YUE3.0hm2),FENWEIYIJICHENDIANCHI(2hm2)、ERJISHUICHULICHI(1.0hm2),YIHANDONGLIANJIE,DONGKOUSHEZHIZHABAN。SHUIYUANWEIZIRANHAISHUIHEDIXIASHUI。DACHAOQIYOUYINSHUIQUDESHUIBENGTIQUZIRANHAISHUI,JINGCHENDIAN、XIAODU(PIAOBAIFEN30mg/L)CHULI,RANHOUJINRUERJISHUICHULICHI,YONG180mSHENQIANJINGDIXIASHUIJINGERJISHUICHULICHIGOUDUI,YONGSHUICHESHIZENGYANGJICHONGFENPUQI、HUNHEJUNYUN,SHUIDEYANDUDIAOZHI20‰ZUOYOU,ZUOWENDINGDEBEIYONGSHUIYUAN。

NO.4充氧設施

CAIYONGLUOCIFENGJIGONGYANG,MEIGECHITANGGONGYANGGONGLVYUE3kW,CAIYONGWEIKONGNAMIGUANYUANHUANZENGYANG,MEIPAICHONGYANGHUANZHIJIANJULI100cm,JULICHIDI15cm,MEIGECHITANGDIAOZHUANG6PAICHONGYANGHUAN,PAIYUPAIJIANJU300cm,MEIGECHITANGPEIZHI120GECHONGYANGHUAN。MEIGECHITANGDUIJIAOFANGZHISHUICHEZENGYANGJI2BU,CUJINCHISHUIXUNHUANLIUDONG,LIYUCHIDIWUWUXIANGCHIZHONGYANGPAIWUKOUJUJI。

NO.5第一茬對蝦養殖

5.1 進水消毒、配水

3YUEZHONGXIAXUN,DACHAOSHIJINSHUI,JINGCHENDIANCHIXIAODU,CAIYONGPIAOBAIFENYUE30mg/L,48hHOU,JINGXIAODUCHULIDEHAISHUIJINRUERJISHUICHULICHI,JIAZHUDIXIADANSHUI,JIANGYANDUDIAOZHI20‰ZUOYOU,YONGSHUICHESHIZENGYANGJIPUQI,HAIDANSHUIHUNHEJUNYUNBEIYONG。

5.2 苗種選擇、標粗

4YUECHU,XUANZEHAINANYOUZHINANMEIBAIDUIXIAP5ZIXIAMIAOZHONG,ZAIBENDIYUMIAOCHANGCHEJIANJINGYIZHOUSHIJIANBIAOCU,MIAOZHONGGUIGEDA1.0 cmZUOYOU,CHISHUIWENDUDA20 ℃,KAISHIXIANGCHITANGZHONGFANGYANG。

5.3 放養時間與密度

WENPENGCHITANGSHUIWENDUDA20 ℃SHIZHUNBEIFANGMIAO,FANGMIAOQIANJINGCHONGFENPUQI、FEISHUI,JINGXIAMIAOSHISHUI24h,SHISHUIHEGEHOU,KAISHIFANGMIAO。DIYICHADUIXIAYANGZHIFANGMIAOSHIJIANWEI4YUE13RI,MIAOZHONGBIAOCUCHIYANDUYUWENPENGYANDUCHAXIAOYU5‰,FANGMIAOMIDUWEI300WANWEI/hm2 。

NO.6養殖管理

6.1 加水與調水

YANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONG,QIANQISUIXIAMIAOSHENGCHANGZHUJIANTIANSHUI,MEIZHOUYICI,MEICI10~20cm。MEI10~15d,DINGQISHIYONGEMJUN、GUANGHEXIJUNDIAOKONGCHITANGSHUIZHI,BAOCHIZAOXIANG、JUNXIANGWENDING。QIANQIZHIJIASHUI,ZHONGHOUQIDADAOZUIGAOSHUIWEIHOUMEITIANJIAHUANSHUIBUSHAOYU20cm。

6.2 飼料投喂

XUANZEYOUZHIPEIHESILIAO,CAIYONGYABAOGANJUNDENGWEISHENGTAIZHIJIHEVcBANSILIAO,JINGMIFENGFAJIAO6~12hHOUSHIYONG。QIANQIMEITIANTOUWEIYICIXIANHUOLUCHONG(JINGXIAODUSHAJUN)、YICIPEIHESILIAO;15dHOUQUANBUSHIYONGPEIHESILIAO,SUIDUIXIASHENGCHANGTOUWEICISHUZENGJIADAOMEITIAN4CI,CHITANGNEISHEZHI2~3GESILIAOTAI,GUANCHADUIXIASHESHIQINGKUANG,YILIYUJISHIDIAOZHENGTOUERLIANG。

6.3 增氧與排污

CHITANGFANGMIAOHOU,LUOCIFENGJIYINGQUANTIANKAIQI,BAOCHICHITANGSHUITIRONGYANGCHONGZU(5mg/LYISHANG),SUICHITANGSHUIWEIJIASHEN,YINGJISHIZENGDACHONGQILIANG,DIAOZHENGMEIGECHONGQIPANDECHUQILIANG,BAOZHENGCHONGYANGXIAOGUO。MEITIANPAIWUQIANYINGKAIQISHUICHESHIZENGYANGJI,SHICHITANGSHUITIHUANMANZHUANDONG,JIANGWUWUHUIJIDAOJIWUKOU,YUE2 hHOU,TIQIKONGZHISHUIGUANPAIWU。

6.4 養殖監測

YANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONG,MEITIANJIANCECHISHUIRONGYANG、ANDAN、YAXIAOSUANYANDENGZHIBIAO;CELIANGDUIXIASHENGCHANGZHIBIAO,ZUOHAO“SANXIANGJILU”,GENJUSHENGCHANGZHIBIAOYUGUCUNTANGLIANG,DIAOZHENGTOUERLIANG。

NO.7養成收獲

JINGGUO60dCHITANGYANGZHI,6YUE12RIDUIXIADADAOPINGJUNGUIGE80WEI/kg,KAISHIDUIXIACHUCHIXIAOSHOU。CAIYONGDILONGWANGCHUXIAFANGSHI,XIANPAISHUIJIANGDICHITANGSHUIWEI,RANHOUFANGRUDILONGWANG,3~5 minJIANGWANGLACHU,MEIWANGBULAODUIXIA15kgZUOYOU。YINGZHUYI,SHOUBUFANGWANGSHIJIANBUYIGUOCHANG,YINCISHICHITANGNEIXIADUO,RUFANGWANGSHIJIANCHANG、BULAOLIANGGUODUO,ZEDUIYUNSHUXIAOSHOUCHENGHUOLVYOUYINGXIANG。

ZHI6YUE18RI,GONGJI0.8hm2,12KOUCHITANG,YANGZHIDUIXIAQUANBUCHUCHIWANBI,JINGTONGJI:GONGCHUCHANNANMEIBAIDUIXIA25300kg,PINGJUNCHANLIANG31625kg/hm2,XIAOSHOUJIAGE55.32YUAN/kg,JINGJIXIAOYI90WANYUAN。YIJINXIAYANGZHICHENGBEN9.88YUAN,YIJINXIALIRUN17.78YUAN。

GAIYANGZHIMOSHIWEIYINIANSHUANGCHAYANGZHI,DIYICHAJIESHUHOU,JICHUSHESHI、SHEBEIJINGWEIXIU、GAIJINHOU,YU8YUE18RITOUFANGDIERCHAMIAOZHONGYANGZHI,TOUFANGMIDU225WANWEI/hm2,CAIQUHEDIYICHAXIANGTONGDEGUANLIJISHUSHOUDUAN,JING80dYANGZHI,YANGZHIDUIXIAGUIGE90~110WEI/Kg,11YUE8RIYIJINGQUANBUCHUCHIWANBI,JINGTONGJIDIERCHAYANGCHENGQINGKUANG:GONGCHUCHANNANMEIBAIDUIXIA14400 kg,PINGJUNCHANLIANG18000kg/hm2,XIAOSHOUJIAGE42YUAN/kg,JINGJIXIAOYI28.8WANYUAN,YI JINXIAYANGZHICHENGBEN13YUAN,YIJINXIALIRUN8YUAN。

QUANNIANLIANGCHAYANGZHIJIEGUO:GUDINGZICHANZHEJIU,TUDICHENGBEN3.5WANYUAN;WENPENGZHEJIU7.5WANYUAN(YIPENGJIAJIEGOUYICIXINGTOURUSHIYONGQI10NIANJISUAN);WAIFUPENGMO2WANYUAN;QITAZHEJIU2WANYUAN,HEJIZHEJIUCHENGBEN15WANYUAN。QUANNIANLIANGCHAYANGZHIJINGJIXIAOYI(90+28.8)-15=103.8WANYUAN。

NO.8總結與討論

BENYANGZHIMOSHIJIYUEHUACHENGDUGAO,MIAOZHONGZHILIANGSHIYANGZHICHENGGONGLVDEGUANJIAN,YINGXUANZEJINGJIANCEBUXIEDAITEDINGBINGYUANTIDEYOUZHIMIAOZHONG。

YOUWAIDIYINJINMIAOZHONGRUTANGYANGZHIQIAN,YINGJINXINGBIAOCU,YITIGAOMIAOZHONGDUIBENDISHUIZHIHUANJINGDENGDESHIYINGNENGLI,TIGAOFANGMIAOCHENGHUOLV。

DIYICHAYANGZHIDUIXIAMIAOZHONGTOUFANGLIANGBUCHAOGUO300WANWEI/hm2,DIERCHAYANGZHIDUIXIAMIAOZHONGTOUFANGLIANGBUCHAOGUO225WANWEI/hm2WEIYI。

CHENDIANCHI、PEISHUICHIYUYANGZHIMIANJIBIXUJUBEIYIDINGDEPEITAOSHUIYUANNENGLI,GUIMOYUWENPENGCHITANGYANGZHIMIANJIBILIYINGDADAO3∶1~4∶1YISHANG,BAOZHENGSHUIYUANGONGYINGCHONGZU,SHUIZHIWENDINGYOULIANG。